A strong conclusion will provide a sense of closure to the essay while again placing your concepts in a somewhat wider context. It will also, in some instances, add a stimulus to further thought. Since no two essays are the same, no single formula will automatically generate an introduction and conclusion for you.
But the following guidelines will help you to construct a suitable beginning and end for your essay.
The following strategies may help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your essay:. Most of the advice in this handout pertains to argumentative or exploratory academic essays. Be aware, however, that different genres have their own special expectations about beginnings and endings. While considered a separate methodology from RAD, they share some of the same principles: iterative development, user interaction, ability to change. The goal of the agile methodologies is to provide the flexibility of an iterative approach while ensuring a quality product.
One last methodology we will discuss is a relatively new concept taken from the business bestseller The Lean Startup , by Eric Reis. In this methodology, the focus is on taking an initial idea and developing a minimum viable product MVP. The MVP is a working software application with just enough functionality to demonstrate the idea behind the project.
Once the MVP is developed, it is given to potential users for review. Feedback on the MVP is generated in two forms: 1 direct observation and discussion with the users, and 2 usage statistics gathered from the software itself. Using these two forms of feedback, the team determines whether they should continue in the same direction or rethink the core idea behind the project, change the functions, and create a new MVP.
This change in strategy is called a pivot. Several iterations of the MVP are developed, with new functions added each time based on the feedback, until a final product is completed. The biggest difference between the lean methodology and the other methodologies is that the full set of requirements for the system are not known when the project is launched. As each iteration of the project is released, the statistics and feedback gathered are used to determine the requirements.
The lean methodology works best in an entrepreneurial environment where a company is interested in determining if their idea for a software application is worth developing. When developing software, or any sort of product or service, there exists a tension between the developers and the different stakeholder groups, such as management, users, and investors. This tension relates to how quickly the software can be developed time , how much money will be spent cost , and how well it will be built quality.
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The quality triangle is a simple concept. So what does it mean that you can only address two of the three? However, if you are willing or able to spend a lot of money, then a project can be completed quickly with high-quality results through hiring more good programmers. Of course, these are just generalizations, and different projects may not fit this model perfectly.
But overall, this model helps us understand the tradeoffs that we must make when we are developing new products and services. As I noted earlier, software developers create software using one of several programming languages. A programming language is an artificial language that provides a way for a programmer to create structured code to communicate logic in a format that can be executed by the computer hardware.
Over the past few decades, many different types of programming languages have evolved to meet many different needs.
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In these early languages, very specific instructions had to be entered line by line — a tedious process. First-generation languages are called machine code. In machine code, programming is done by directly setting actual ones and zeroes the bits in the program using binary code. Assembly language is the second-generation language.
Assembly language gives english-like phrases to the machine-code instructions, making it easier to program. An assembly-language program must be run through an assembler, which converts it into machine code. Here is an example program t hat adds and using assembly language:. Third-generation languages are not specific to the type of hardware on which they run and are much more like spoken languages.
Most third-generation languages must be compiled, a process that converts them into machine code.
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Fourth-generation languages are a class of programming tools that enable fast application development using intuitive interfaces and environments. Many times, a fourth-generation language has a very specific purpose, such as database interaction or report-writing. Why would anyone want to program in a lower-level language when they require so much more work?
The answer is similar to why some prefer to drive stick-shift automobiles instead of automatic transmission: control and efficiency. You have finer control over the hardware as well. Sometimes, a combination of higher- and lower-level languages are mixed together to get the best of both worlds: the programmer will create the overall structure and interface using a higher-level language but will use lower-level languages for the parts of the program that are used many times or require more precision.
Besides classifying a program language based on its generation, it can also be classified by whether it is compiled or interpreted. As we have learned, a computer language is written in a human-readable form. In a compiled language, the program code is translated into a machine-readable form called an executable that can be run on the hardware.
Each type of operating system has its own JVM which must be installed, which is what allows Java programs to run on many different types of operating systems.
A procedural programming language is designed to allow a programmer to define a specific starting point for the program and then execute sequentially. All early programming languages worked this way.
As user interfaces became more interactive and graphical, it made sense for programming languages to evolve to allow the user to define the flow of the program. In other words, a procedural program focuses on the sequence of activities to be performed; an object-oriented program focuses on the different items being manipulated. If the program needed to retrieve or set data regarding an employee, it would first create an employee object in the program and then set or retrieve the values needed. Every object has properties, which are descriptive fields associated with the object.
In the example, there are two methods. If you have been around business programming very long, you may have heard about the COBOL programming language. COBOL is a procedural, compiled language that at one time was the primary programming language for business applications. Invented in for use on large mainframe computers, COBOL is an abbreviation of common business-oriented language.
With the advent of more efficient programming languages, COBOL is now rarely seen outside of old, legacy applications. To write a program, a programmer needs little more than a text editor and a good idea. However, to be productive, he or she must be able to check the syntax of the code, and, in some cases, compile the code. To be more efficient at programming, additional tools, such as an integrated development environment IDE or computer-aided software-engineering CASE tools, can be used. For most programming languages, an IDE can be used.
An IDE provides a variety of tools for the programmer, and usually includes:. While an IDE provides several tools to assist the programmer in writing the program, the code still must be written. Computer-aided software-engineering CASE tools allow a designer to develop software with little or no programming. Instead, the CASE tool writes the code for the designer. CASE tools come in many varieties, but their goal is to generate quality code based on input created by the designer.
Today, most websites are built with a variety of tools, but the final product that is transmitted to a browser is still HTML. HTML, at its simplest, is a text language that allows you to define the different components of a web page. These definitions are handled through the use of HTML tags, which consist of text between brackets.
For example, an HTML tag can tell the browser to show a word in italics, to link to another web page, or to insert an image.
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In the example below, some text is being defined as a heading while other text is being emphasized. The use of CSS allows the style of a website to be set and stay consistent throughout. The following example shows how this might look. The combination of HTML and CSS can be used to create a wide variety of formats and designs and has been widely adopted by the web-design community. When developers create a website, they do not write it out manually in a text editor.
Tools such as Adobe Dreamweaver allow the designer to create a web page that includes images and interactive elements without writing a single line of code. However, professional web designers still need to learn HTML and CSS in order to have full control over the web pages they are developing.
When an organization decides that a new software program needs to be developed, they must determine if it makes more sense to build it themselves or to purchase it from an outside company.
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