And he wrote, translated, or edited 35 more books, not least of which were his famous translations The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night 10 vols. He died in Trieste on Oct. Brodie, The Devil Drives Among the older biographies, Georgiana M. Stisted, The True Life of Capt.
Sir Richard F. Burton , is valuable. The standard bibliography is Norman M. McLynn, F.
Burton, Boston: Longwood Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. November 9, Retrieved November 09, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. A n adventurer with a gift for languages, Sir Richard Francis Burton was the first European to reach many of the once forbidden areas of the world, including many ancient Muslim cities, as well as Lake Tanganyika during his quest for the source of the Nile River.
He wrote extensively of his travels, publishing 43 volumes and providing invaluable insight into the religion, lives, and customs of the people with whom he came in contact. In addition, he translated many texts of the East for Westerners, including the Kama Sutra and the definitive translation of Arabian Nights.
Kama Sutra - Annotated (The original english translation by Sir Richard Francis Burton) - eBook
Born to a retired officer of the British army and his wealthy British wife, Burton was the oldest of three children. He and his brother and sister grew up in England, France, and Italy. By all accounts an unruly child, Burton nevertheless showed promise in his studies, including a great gift for languages. He would eventually master 40 languages and dialects.
He was expelled only two years later, however, due to disciplinary problems. He decided to join the English army, and Burton became an officer during Britain's campaigns in Afghanistan and what is now Pakistan.
Having now mastered the Arabic and Hindi languages, he became an accomplished and valuable spy. After his army service, Burton began his exploration of ancient Muslim cities. Though not the first non-Muslim to visit Mecca, the birthplace of the prophet Mohammed, Burton provided the most insightful and comprehensive information to date about the place and its people in his book, Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca.
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In , he led an expedition to Harar in what is now Ethiopia, and became the first European to enter that city. He wrote of this adventure in First Footsteps in East Africa. Harar was Burton's first step toward his journey to find the source of the Nile, specifically the White Nile, which joins the Blue Nile to form the Nile River. British army officers, including John Hanning Speke , accompanied Burton in , but their expedition was cut short by an attack by Somali natives, who seriously injured Burton and Speke. After returning to England to recover, Burton and Speke began a new expedition in East Africa in Both near death, they saw Lake Tanganyika on the border of what is now Zaire and Tanzania, the first Europeans ever to do so.
Burton believed he had found the White Nile's source, but Speke pushed on, discovering Lake Victoria and claiming it as the source. Burton and Speke remained at odds over their discoveries, though Lake Victoria was eventually proven to be the true source of the White Nile. These posts allowed him time to continue his writing and his translations, including the erotic literature of the East, with which he became increasingly fascinated. He was determined to expose his repressed and conservative Victorian society to the views of these works, and to advocate the sexual liberation of women, as well as men.
His controversial work continued with his translation of the Eastern sexual manual, the Kama Sutra , and culminated in the volume translation of Arabian Nights , a collection of Persian-Indian-Arabian stories including " Sinbad the Sailor " , which he annotated with essays and footnotes regarding customs and sexual practices. Due to society's view of her husband's scandalous work, Burton's wife burned most of his diaries and journals after he died, attempting to protect her husband's reputation and place in history. Sir Richard Francis Burton , —90, English explorer, writer, and linguist.
He joined the service of the East India Company and, while stationed in India, acquired a thorough knowledge of the Persian, Afghan, Hindustani, and Arabic languages. In , in various disguises, he made a famous journey to Mecca and Medina, about which he wrote the vivid Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah 3 vol. With John Speke he took a party to Somaliland; he alone, disguised as an Arab merchant, made the journey to Harar, Ethiopia, where he met with the local ruler. He went with Speke to uncharted E central Africa to discover the source of the Nile; he found Lake Tanganyika but abandoned the attempt to reach Lake Nyasa.
He explored Santos, in Brazil, while consul there, and after crossing the continent wrote Explorations of the Highlands of Brazil After a short period —71 as consul at Damascus he was consul —90 at Trieste, where he died. His last years were devoted chiefly to literature. Some of the things treated of in this work are not to be found in the Vatsyayana, such as the four classes of women, viz.
The author adds that he wrote these things from the opinions of Gonikaputra and Nandikeshwara, both of whom are mentioned by Vatsyayana, but their works are not now extant. It is difficult to give any approximate idea as to the year in which the work was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was written after that of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on this subject that are still extant.
Vatsyayana gives the names of ten authors on the subject, all of whose works he had consulted, but none of which are extant, and does not mention this one. This would tend to show that Kukkoka wrote after Vatsya, otherwise Vatsya would assuredly have mentioned him as an author in this branch of literature along with the others. The author of the 'Five Arrows' No. He is called the chief ornament of poets, the treasure of the sixty-four arts, and the best teacher of the rules of music.
He says that he composed the work after reflecting on the aphorisms of love as revealed by the gods, and studying the opinions of Gonikaputra, Muladeva, Babhravya, Ramtideva, Nundikeshwara and Kshemandra. It is impossible to say whether he had perused all the works of these authors, or had only heard about them; anyhow, none of them appear to be in existence now.
This work contains nearly six hundred verses, and is divided into five chapters, called Sayakas or Arrows. The author of the 'Light of Love' No. The work contains four hundred verses, and gives only a short account of the doctrines of love, dealing more with other matters. This treatise is, however, very short, containing only one hundred and twenty-five verses.
The author of the 'Sprout of Love' No. It appears from the last verse of the manuscript that he was a resident of the province of Tirhoot, the son of a Brahman named Ganeshwar, who was also a poet. The work, written in Sanscrit, gives the descriptions of different classes of men and women, their classes being made out from their age, description, conduct, etc.
Sir Richard Francis Burton Facts
It contains three chapters, and its date is not known, and cannot be ascertained. He is supposed to have been a relation or connection of the house of Lodi, which reigned in Hindostan from A. The work would, therefore, have been written in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. It contains ten chapters, and has been translated into English, but only six copies were printed for private circulation.
This is supposed to be the latest of the Sanscrit works on the subject, and the ideas in it were evidently taken from previous writings of the same nature.
The contents of these works are in themselves a literary curiosity. There are to be found both in Sanscrit poetry and in the Sanscrit drama a certain amount of poetical sentiment and romance, which have, in every country and in every language, thrown an immortal halo round the subject.
Kamasutra with Illustrations
But here it is treated in a plain, simple, matter of fact sort of way. Men and women are divided into classes and divisions in the same way that Buffon and other writers on natural history have classified and divided the animal world. As Venus was represented by the Greeks to stand forth as the type of the beauty of woman, so the Hindoos describe the Padmini or Lotus woman as the type of most perfect feminine excellence, as follows:.
She in whom the following signs and symptoms appear is called a Padmini. Her face is pleasing as the full moon; her body, well clothed with flesh, is soft as the Shiras or mustard flower, her skin is fine, tender and fair as the yellow lotus, never dark coloured.
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Her eyes are bright and beautiful as the orbs of the fawn, well cut, and with reddish corners. Her bosom is hard, full and high; she has a good neck; her nose is straight and lovely, and three folds or wrinkles cross her middle—about the umbilical region.
Richard Francis Burton - English Explorer, Scholar, Soldier and Diplomat () | ILAB
Her yoni resembles the opening lotus bud, and her love seed Kama salila is perfumed like the lily that has newly burst. She walks with swan-like gait, and her voice is low and musical as the note of the Kokila bird, she delights in white raiments, in fine jewels, and in rich dresses. She eats little, sleeps lightly, and being as respectful and religious as she is clever and courteous, she is ever anxious to worship the gods, and to enjoy the conversation of Brahmans. Such, then, is the Padmini or Lotus woman.
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Detailed descriptions then follow of the Chitrini or Art woman; the Shankhini or Conch woman, and the Hastini or Elephant woman, their days of enjoyment, their various seats of passion, the manner in which they should be manipulated and treated in sexual intercourse, along with the characteristics of the men and women of the various countries in Hindostan. The details are so numerous, and the subjects so seriously dealt with, and at such length, that neither time nor space will permit of their being given here.
One work in the English language is somewhat similar to these works of the Hindoos. It is called 'Kalogynomia: or the Laws of Female Beauty,' being the elementary principles of that science, by T. Bell, M. Other works in English also enter into great details of private and domestic life. Waters, To persons interested in the above subjects these works will be found to contain such details as have been seldom before published, and which ought to be thoroughly understood by all philanthropists and benefactors of society.
After a perusal of the Hindoo work, and of the English books above mentioned, the reader will understand the subject, at all events from a materialistic, realistic and practical point of view. If all science is founded more or less on a stratum of facts, there can be no harm in making known to mankind generally certain matters intimately connected with their private, domestic, and social life.
It may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that Vatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the English language. It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the 'Anunga runga, or the stage of love,' reference was frequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of that opinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions were asked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, and that it was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state.
The copy of the manuscript obtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares, Calcutta and Jeypoor for copies of the manuscript from Sanscrit libraries in those places. Copies having been obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of a Commentary called 'Jayamangla' a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the English translation was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit:—.
The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four different copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary called 'Jayamangla' for correcting the portion in the first five parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion, because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, all the other copies I had were far too incorrect.
However, I took that portion as correct in which the majority of the copies agreed with each other.
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