Clilinaction CLIL will no longer be a secret with"clil in action"! Smartenglish Improve your English with Smartenglish! Scienze in classe Studying physics, biology, earth science and chemistry has never been so stimulating! Scienze in classe. International projects Projects involving students from around the world, of different ages, which allow students to learn new content and release their energy, through participation and discussion. Lab 4 energy A virtual thematic classroom, high school students linked from various parts of the world for 15 courses on the world of energy, organised by faculty of MIT in Boston and world-renowned experts.
Lab 4 energy. Necst We are a partner of the NECST project , the European Union programme that connects schools in Croatia, Holland, Norway and Italy in the creation of a digital platform for research and exchange of knowledge on energy production. Schoolnet A storyboard full of texts and drawings to narrate one's country in an original manner: letting loose the imagination of children around the world in the edition. Download " The Sun and planets " pdf file. Download the junior version pdf file.
Special reports. Apparently the sensational discovery made by CERN researchers From the Multimedia section. Neutrinos Neutrinos are extremely light neutral particles The definition of a dwarf planet Astronomy, like all scientific disciplines, is continuously evolving In the past decade, many advances with respect to ancient climates have been about Venus, based mostly on results from the Venus Express spacecraft.
However, the SPICAV instrument of Venus Express has found that the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio is significantly higher at and above the cloud deck than nearer to the surface. This enrichment could be caused by some photochemical process molecular decomposition or planetary escape or selective condensation into clouds.
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To make significant progress toward the goal of understanding the processes controlling climate on the terrestrial planets requires observations over a significant fraction of a solar cycle in order to derive a time-averaged escape flux for recent epochs and to understand the relative importance of several escape mechanisms. Several critical areas of investigation are as follows: 1 measuring and modeling the abundances and isotopic ratios of noble gases on Venus to understand how similar its original state was to those of Earth and Mars and to understand the similarities and differences between the coupled evolution of interiors and atmospheres for these planets; 2 characterizing ancient climates on the terrestrial planets, including searching for isotopic or mineral evidence of ancient climates on Venus; and 3 examining the geology and mineralogy of the tesserae on Venus to search for clues to ancient environments.
The processes that occur in the atmospheres, surfaces, and interiors of the inner planets are governed by the same principles of physics and chemistry that govern the processes found on other solar system bodies. Comparing and contrasting the styles of past and present interior dynamic, volcanic, tectonic, aeolian, mass wasting, impact, and atmospheric processes can provide significant insight into such processes.
The information gleaned from any single body, even Earth, is only one piece in the puzzle of coming to understand the history and evolution of the solar system and the bodies within it. Impacts, which are ubiquitous across the solar system, provide an important chronometer for the dating of surface regions on objects throughout the solar system.
Unraveling solar system impact history has relied heavily on the lunar impact record. Both the Moon and Ganymede retain an impact signature that suggests a late heavy bombardment due to migration of the gas giants. The impactors themselves, derived mostly from asteroids and comets, provide important clues to the evolution of the early solar system and the building blocks of the planets and their satellites. Tectonic and volcanic styles vary significantly across the solar system.
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The comparison of active volcanic styles on Venus, Earth, Io, and several of the icy satellites in the outer solar system and of tectonic and volcanic styles on all solid planetary bodies provides information on the mechanisms by which planetary bodies dissipate primordial, tidal, and radiogenic heat. In particular, the conditions can be characterized that lead to planets like Earth with plate tectonics, single-plate bodies like Mercury and the Moon, and the spectrum of bodies with intermediate behavior.
Further characterization of current or paleo-dynamos in the cores of the terrestrial planets and satellites of the outer solar system may significantly increase our knowledge of magnetic-field generation and evolution in planetary cores. Planetary exospheres, those tenuous atmospheres that exist on many planetary bodies, including the Moon, Mercury, asteroids, and some of the satellites of the giant planets, are poorly understood at present.
Insight into how they form, evolve, and interact with the space environment would greatly benefit from comparisons of such structures on a diversity of bodies. An understanding of atmospheric and climatic processes on Venus, Mars, and Titan may provide hints about the early evolution of the atmosphere on Earth and clues to future climate.
Similarly, increased understanding of potential past liquid-water environments on Venus and Mars may result in greater insight into the evolution of habitable environments and early development of life. There may be significant advantages in taking a multi-planet approach to instrument and mission definition and operation. Major cost and risk reductions for future missions can result from a synergistic approach to developing. For example, technologies, including sample collection, cryogenic containment and transport, and teleoperation, may have application for sample return missions across the solar system.
Balloon technologies for Venus may find application at Titan. The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the early solar system are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life and in addressing questions of whether life developed on Earth alone or was developed in other solar system environments and imported here. Studies of the origin and evolution of volatiles on the terrestrial planets, including loss of water from Venus and Mars and the effects of early planetary magnetic fields and variation in the solar wind over time are critical to our understanding of where environments might have existed for the development of life.
Although recent orbital and rover missions on Mars have identified early environments on that planet that may have fostered life, there is no evidence from the low-resolution images from past missions of the existence of early terrains on Venus. Surface mapping of Venus at higher resolution is needed. An understanding of the impact flux in the early solar system as a function of time, including verification of the reality or otherwise of the late heavy bombardment, provides critical information on potential limits to the early development of life on Earth and other bodies.
Age measurements on returned samples from a broader range of impact basins on the Moon would enable greater quantification of the impact history of the inner solar system. Ground- and space-based searches for extrasolar planets have expanded significantly over the past decade, resulting in an explosion of new discoveries. A significant reduction in the threshold planetary size for detection has been achieved.
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Moreover, the atmospheric compositions of a small number of these planets have been probed. In a number of cases, the sizes and orbits of extrasolar planets have run counter to prior models of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems. Studies of the structural and dynamical evolution of the solar system can significantly enable studies of extrasolar planets. For example, models for migration of the gas giants in the solar system, which could have caused the late heavy bombardment some 3. In addition, characterization of planetary atmospheres within the solar system will facilitate greater understanding of atmospheric structure and chemistry in distant planetary systems, as well as providing potential signatures for habitable zones.
Knowledge of the geophysical and geochemical structures of the terrestrial planets can be scaled to model the larger sizes of extrasolar super-Earths. In particular, the effects of planetary size on such processes as core dynamo formation, internal and surface dynamics, heat-loss processes, and the development of atmospheres can be investigated.
The Moon is a logical step in the process of continued human exploration of the solar system, and it is conceivable that human precursor missions and human missions might return to the lunar surface in the coming decades. Although human precursor missions are not necessarily science-driven, science will definitely be a beneficiary of any precursor activity. Lunar scientists can provide critical scientific input to the design and implementation of any human precursor activity to ensure that the science return is maximized within the scope of the mission.
Should human missions occur, the presence of geologically trained astronauts on the lunar surface could enable significant scientific in situ activities and make informed down-selections on-site to ensure the return of material with the highest science value.
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Climate research cuts across the standard disciplines. Climate and its change on a single planet cannot be understood without in-depth knowledge of geology, hydrology, and meteorology. Orbital missions to all of these bodies have been conducted or are underway now; however, in situ exploration requires that spacecraft be able to survive harsh chemical and physical environments.
The lack of an atmosphere at Mercury and the Moon, for example, coupled with their relatively large masses, means that landed missions incur either a substantial propulsion burden for soft landing or large landing shocks at impact. The development of a robust, airless-body lander system incorporating high-impulse chemical propulsion, impact attenuation, and low-mass subsystems will enable extensive surface exploration in the coming decades.
Venus and Mercury, and to a lesser extent the Moon, also represent extreme thermal environments that will stress spacecraft capabilities. High-temperature survivability technologies such as new materials, batteries, electronics, and possibly cooled chambers will enable long-term in situ missions. The development of robust scientific instruments and sampling systems, including age-dating systems, spectrometers, seismometers, and subsurface drilling and related technologies, is also critical in addressing the science objectives for the coming decades.
New capabilities for in situ age dating are of particular importance, as they can help to provide constraints on models of the surface and interior evolution of all the terrestrial planets. A series of National Research Council NRC reports, culminating in the planetary science decadal survey, 26 affirm that the exploration of Mercury is central to the scientific understanding of the solar system.
Planetary Size and Distance Comparison | National Geographic Society
Given all the advances that will likely come from MESSENGER and BepiColombo, as well as ongoing technology and capability enhancement work, the high priority of Mercury landed science could be revisited at the earliest opportunity in the mid to late years of this decade. The planetary decadal survey included recommendations for New Frontiers missions to Venus and the Moon.
The science mission objectives for VISE from the and reports are as follows:. Achieving all of these objectives represents a flagship-class investment, 29 but achieving a majority is considered feasible in the New Frontiers program. In the planetary science decadal survey, the long-term goal was extraction and return to Earth of samples solid and gas from the Venus surface, clearly a flagship-class mission, and VISE was considered in terms of its contribution to this sample return. VISE-like missions do, however, provide the rare opportunities for technical demonstrations in the Venus near-surface environment, and inclusion of demonstration technologies on a VISE mission would be justified on a non-interference, non-critical-path basis.
Although recent remote sensing missions provide much valuable new data from orbit about the diversity of materials and the geophysical context of this important basin, achieving the highest-priority science objectives. Landing on the Moon, collecting appropriate samples, and returning them to Earth requires a New Frontiers-class mission, which has been demonstrated through the decadal survey and the New Frontiers proposal process.
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The committee places very high priority on the return of at least 1 kg of rock fragments from the South Pole-Aitken Basin region, selected to maximize the likelihood of achieving the above objectives. Such a mission is significantly enabled by recent orbital missions that have provided high-resolution surface images, allowing a reduction in the risk associated with appropriate site selection and hazard avoidance. Smaller Discovery and New Frontiers missions, while able to accomplish some of the highest-priority VEXAG science objectives, do not have the capability to address all of the interrelated aspects of climate Figure 5.
A flagship mission focused on studying the climate of Venus would answer many of the outstanding science questions that remain about the Venus climate system. In , NASA tasked the Venus Science and Technology Definition Team to define the science objectives for a possible flagship-class mission to Venus with a nominal launch date in the mids. Determine how active Venus is including the interior, surface, and atmosphere ; and.
Determine where and when water, which appears to have been present in the past, has gone. The VFDRM comprises synergistic measurements from two landers, two balloons, and a highly capable orbiter. However, while there are synergisms that can be realized by conducting these investigations within the same mission, much can be accomplished with multiple smaller Discovery, New Frontiers, or smaller flagship-class missions that address subsets of the VFDRM objectives, such as the Venus Climate Mission VCM described below.
The Venus Climate Mission will greatly improve our understanding of the current state and dynamics and evolution of the strong carbon dioxide greenhouse climate of Venus, providing fundamental advances in the understanding of and ability to model climate and global change on Earth-like planets. The VISE mission focuses on the detailed characterization of the surface and deep atmosphere and their interaction, whereas VCM provides three-dimensional constraints on the chemistry and physics of the middle and upper atmosphere in order to identify.
The principal science objectives of the Venus Climate Mission are as follows:. The relationships and feedbacks among these parameters, such as cloud properties and radiation balance, are among the most vexing problems limiting the forecasting capability of terrestrial GCMs. Evidence will also be gathered for the existence, nature, and timing of the suspected ancient radical global change from habitable, Earth-like conditions to the current, hostile, runaway greenhouse climate, with important implications for understanding the stability of climate and our ability to predict and model climate change on Earth and extrasolar terrestrial planets.
This mission does not require extensive technology development and could be accomplished in the coming decade, providing extremely valuable data to improve our understanding of climate on the terrestrial planets. Important contributions can be made by a lunar geophysical network LGN to the goals for the study of the inner planets. The NRC decadal survey identified geophysical network science as a potential high-yield mission concept. The importance of geophysical networks to both lunar and solar system science was strongly affirmed by subsequent reports.
Such data e. Important science objectives that could be accomplished by an LGN mission are as follows:. Head III, Surfaces and interiors of the terrestrial planets, pp. Beatty, C. Petersen, and A. Chaikin, eds. Sky Publishing, Cambridge, Mass.
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