Technically this is a well-paced work drawing the reader into the events through historical recall. This book is simply the definitive work on structural violence in East Timor, especially as it relates to the events of , and should be compulsory reading for some of the actors concerned. Gunn, Peace Review. This fuller perspective is particularly valuable to the legal world. This personal, human aspect is perhaps one the most notable contributions of Robinson's book to the historical documentation of the story of East Timor in Western texts. Robinson provides insight not only into the challenges that international interventions encounter on the ground but also the importance of persevering in spite of the challenges.
- Site Index.
- RTI and Reading: Response to Intervention in a Nutshell.
- References to Appendix F;
- lessnasuger.tk Tier 2 Positive Behavior Intervention And Support of Social Stories;
- Special Education Services.
- The Dominican Intervention;
Trisko, Yale Journal of International Affairs. But the value of his book goes far beyond that: as a historian who has thought deeply about political violence, as a human rights practitioner familiar with the ways of states and institutions that perpetrate and condone massive human rights abuses, and as a reflective participant in the UN mission that oversaw the referendum on East Timor's independence, Robinson is uniquely qualified to bring out the wider meanings of what happened in East Timor in , and triumphantly succeeds in doing so.
Combining a scholarly analysis of violence with first-person reporting, it provides a profound and nuanced understanding of recent East Timorese history.
His appraisal of the conditions enabling the belated United Nations intervention in East Timor is likewise unrivalled in its combination of scholarly analysis and insider insights. Illus: 22 halftones. Overview Author s Reviews In a roboticized world, hacks would not just affect your data but could endanger your property, your life and even national security. Schneier says only government intervention can save us from such emerging calamities.
He calls for reimagining the regulatory regime surrounding digital security in the same way the federal government altered its national security apparatus after the Sept. Among other ideas, he outlines the need for a new federal agency, the National Cyber Office, which he imagines researching, advising and coordinating a response to threats posed by an everything-internet.
But he conceded that government intervention seems unlikely at best. Those trends are now obvious. It used to be difficult to add internet connectivity to home devices, but in the last few years the cost and complexity of doing so have plummeted. The manufacturer also has to write a few lines of code — in the example of the fan, the Amazon engineer needed just a half-page of code. If you buy it from Amazon, the fan will automatically connect with your home network and start obeying commands issued to your Alexa. Just plug it in. This system illustrates Mr. Sometimes, smarts will lead to conveniences — you can yell at your microwave to reheat your lunch from across the room.
Evidence supports the use of exercise to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort for computer workers [ 42 ]. By engaging in exercises, OCWs can reduce perceived discomfort [ 43 ], improve posture [ 44 ], and minimize fatigue [ 45 ]. Neck stretch, neck tilt, chin tuck, side stretch, and torso twist are some recommended exercises for the neck and upper body. Hip marching, leg hug, leg extension, and ankle pumps are some of the exercises for the lower body. Stretching increases mental alertness while decreasing anxiety and stress [ 46 ]. Table 3 presents the stretching exercise guidelines [ Table 3.
Stretching exercise guidelines]. Stretch the muscles slowly and avoid jerky movements [ 53 ]. Repeat each stretching exercise 10 times or at least 3—4 times during each episode of exercise [ 43 ].
Behavior Contracts and Checklists That Work
In office work environments, workers start the work day with good posture, but eventually recline or bend throughout the course of the day assuming risky postures and enhancing their risk for WMSDs [ 47 ]. Some workers habitually cradle the phone between the neck and shoulder so that their hands are free to type on the keyboard, thereby adding stress and strain to the lateral supporting muscles.
Hence, ergonomic experts advise computer workers to be mindful of their posture when performing computer work.
To help computer workers to be mindful of their posture, ergonomic experts suggest them to draw an imaginary line that connects the ears, shoulders, and hip joints and advise to maintain the line. Ergonomic experts also show participants examples of good ideal posture and bad posture slouching, keeping feet on chair frame, elevating shoulders, etc.
When delivering ergonomics education, experts emphasize that ergonomics is nothing but a fit between worker and work environment. They offer information on arranging the workstation and adjusting its components. They suggest that computer workers keep work items within reach.
During ergonomics education sessions, experts show participants how to adjust manual and pneumatic office chairs in addition to other workstation components. When teaching chair adjustment, the emphasis is on properly adjusting the backrest because backrests that are tilted too far forward or backward may contribute to back issues. During ergonomics education sessions, ergonomic experts review various ergonomic accessories and their uses.
Keyboard trays, footrests, glare protectors, document holders, large size mouse, hands-free telephones are some of the common accessories that are reviewed.
According to ergonomic experts, there is no manufactured ergonomic device because what could be an ergonomically suitable device for a computer worker may not be suitable for another worker due to variations in anthropometric characteristics, nature of work tasks, and workstation arrangements. Ergonomics education is delivered to computer workers through didactic lectures, PowerPoint presentations, discussions, demonstrations, video, workstation visits, one-to-one consultations, provision of resources, etc.
Ergonomic checklists, session handouts, brochures, and pictures of ideal work postures and workstations are some of the commonly provided materials at ergonomics education sessions. Product manuals are also used as ergonomics education tools. Ergonomics education has been found to be an effective strategy. Ergonomics education enhances the knowledge about the risk factors associated with WMSDs. Another large-scale field intervention study with more than participants revealed that participants who received education and training to understand office ergonomic principles, perform self-evaluation of work places, and rearrange workstation demonstrated a significant increase in overall ergonomic knowledge [ 29 ].
Ergonomics education intervention was reported to be an effective intervention in reducing musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. Bohr [ 30 ] stated that those who received ergonomics education reported less pain or discomfort. Results identified that computer workers who underwent intensive ergonomics and ergonomics education interventions showed less musculoskeletal discomfort at the 2-month follow-up assessment post-intervention. Several studies found that ergonomics education had a positive influence on the work posture of computer workers. The authors asserted that participative training in workstation ergonomics can improve work postures and work practices.
When the outcomes were evaluated post-intervention, experimental group participants who received the ergonomics education demonstrated improved workstation habits and work posture. Through a cross-over trial that investigated the effectiveness of a 2-week workstation ergonomic intervention consultation and provision of ergonomic accessories , the authors found that individualized ergonomic interventions may improve work-related posture and reduce low back pain [ 51 ]. In their study, the experimental group participants demonstrated appropriate behavioral changes to their workstations when compared to the control group participants.
The experimental group participants also adjusted their workstation and ergonomic accessories post-intervention. Some studies reported less psychosocial stress [ 30 ] and an increased sense of control [ 29 ] as outcomes of ergonomics education. One of the biggest limitations of any educational intervention is the retention of knowledge and ergonomics education intervention is not an exception. Though the majority of the studies reported short-term improvements, evidence is scarce on long-term gains. One study reported improvements in work posture and reduction in pain during short- and long-term follow-ups [ 51 ].
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However, another study that reported a short-term gain 2-month follow-up , failed to report a similar outcome at the month follow-up. Ongoing ergonomics education sessions at specified intervals and provision of ergonomic resources to employees may overcome the problems with latency of knowledge. Showing pictures that highlight good versus bad postures during ergonomics education sessions and encouraging participants to identify what is wrong and why it is wrong may also help solidify their knowledge.
Another limitation of ergonomics education is the lack of application of the learning. Simply presenting the ergonomics information to employees does not solve the problem if they do not have the necessary ergonomic accessories.
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Participatory ergonomics education, in which the participants are allowed to evaluate and modify their own workstation with the help of an ergonomic expert, may overcome this limitation to an extent. Though ergonomics education reported to positively influence work behavior in a short term; in most instances, it fails to elicit the motivation required to induce permanent behavior change.
Habits are powerful and difficult to overcome. Often, participants of ergonomics education were seen to resort to their old habits of work posture and behaviors. Ongoing participatory ergonomics education at specified intervals may overcome this limitation. To prevent WMSDs, employers must work collaboratively with their employees and ergonomic experts. Employers must make every effort to offer ergonomic training programs to their employees, as WMSDs related to computer work are preventable and may save a significant amount of money for them.
As stated elsewhere, the economic benefits of ergonomics education programs can be realized by reviewing direct and indirect cost implications on OSHA Safety Pays website. There are myriad ways an employer can offer ergonomics education. One way to deliver ergonomics education is to make ergonomic resources easily accessible. Staff may be sent periodic e-blasts with ergonomic tips.
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